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Case 机器视觉案例


日期: 2020-08-05
浏览次数: 267

Pontiac Coil manufactures electrical coils, solenoids, and electromechanical devices for automotive, trucking, mobile equipment, medical, information technology and telecommunications applications. In building a fuel stator for a diesel engine, the company has long manually inspected every part to ensure that the lead tower cap had been attached with pins or screws and that the lead towers have been soldered. The company is penalized $2,000 for any defect on this part. Pontiac Coil previously used vision systems that cost $10,700 for similar applications but asked a vision systems distributor if they could provide a more cost-effective solution.

The Vision Traceability Group (VTG), a certified solutions provider of machine vision solutions that is a division of McNaughton-McKay Electric Company, proposed using a Cognex In-Sight® Micro 1050 vision system that costs about $3,700. Rob Osgood, Manufacturing Engineer for Pontiac Coil, developed the application using the vision sensor’s graphical user interface in one week and installed it on the line in only 90 minutes. “The In-Sight vision system has demonstrated its ability to flawlessly inspect several different part numbers,” Osgood said. “In its first full week of operation, it detected two defects, more than paying for itself.”

Manufacturing fuel injection stators

Quality assurance and process control are the foundation of manufacturing at Pontiac Coil. Customers include Delphi, Eaton, Visteon, Cummins, American Axle, Behr, Honeywell, Husco, Teleflex, Bosch, Usui and Ogura. Pontiac Coil employs 340 people and is headquartered in Clarkston, MI, with additional manufacturing facilities in Searcy, AR, and Nottingham, UK.

Most diesel engines use fuel injectors to deliver an atomized fuel charge to the engine cylinders. An electronic timing circuit delivers precisely timed electrical pulses for operation of the fuel injector. These pulses are delivered to a solenoid stator assembly which generates magnetic forces to actuate a solenoid plunger mounted in the fuel injector that controls the injection of fuel into each engine cylinder. The housing of the solenoid stator assembly protects the internal electrical components and locates them precisely in relation to the reciprocating solenoid plunger.

Pontiac Coil builds several types of stators for diesel engines used on heavy trucks. These stators are inspected on a dial machine that checks for high potential (hipot) conditions by applying a high voltage and making sure it does not penetrate the shell. The machine also performs leak testing and laser inspection of threads inside the body. Parts that pass all tests are then laser etched with a unique serial number. The dial machine is manually loaded and unloaded. In the past, the only manual inspection operation was to check the fasteners on the stator.

Two different types of fasteners—pins and star head screws—are used on the two different types of stators inspected on this line and the company needs to ensure that the correct screw is present. Each terminal also needs to be coated with solder so that it makes a good connection with the housing. Also, there are lobes located on the housing to the left and right of a cavity that could potentially be broken off, so the stators also need to be inspected for their presence. Pontiac Coil has used a number of costly vision systems in similar applications and consultants are typically needed to configure these complex systems.

Feasibility study

Tim McLennan, sales engineer for VTG, visited Pontiac Coil and examined the application. He performed a study to evaluating the feasibility of using a much less expensive Cognex vision solution to inspect the part. McLennan brought sample parts back to the company’s vision lab and Jim Witherspoon, Application Engineer for VTG, performed the feasibility study. After experimenting with the application in the lab, Witherspoon concluded that lighting is the key to this application. “Various direct ring lights can be attempted but the CCS High Intensity ring light makes this application very robust,” Witherspoon’s report concluded. “If there is a solder then the tips glow a bright white. If the solder is missing then the tips remain dark. The pins and screw verification also works very well with the prescribed lighting.”

Witherspoon recommended the Cognex In-Sight Micro 1050 vision system because it provides both EasyBuilder® and spreadsheet application development interfaces. Cognex In-Sight Micro vision systems enable powerful vision applications using a small self-contained package available at an economical cost. Additionally, In-Sight vision systems feature the EasyBuilder interface that walks the user through the process of configuring the vision application step by step. The In-Sight enclosure is only 30mm x 30mm x 60mm and provides 640 x 480 (VGA) resolution.

In-Sight Micro vision systems are the size of a remote-head camera so they are ideal for mounting in very tight spaces on robots, production lines and machinery. In addition to their small size, they provide flexible mounting capability with a unique non-linear calibration tool that enables mounting at angles of up to 45-degrees for hard-to-reach applications. They also offer an Ethernet output that simplifies the task of interfacing the vision system and, in some applications, eliminates the expense of a programmable logic controller (PLC) by communicating directly with the production system.

Developing the vision application

The feasibility study demonstrated that the In-Sight vision system could identify good parts from bad parts,” said Rob Osgood, Manufacturing Engineer for Pontiac Coil. “I took on the task of developing the application and integrating the vision system into our production system.” Osgood started off by mounting the vision system and connecting it by an Ethernet cable to the network switch. The vision system is powered by a Power over Ethernet (PoE) adaptor. He used the lighting and the lens recommended by VTG. Osgood configured the vision system with an IP address on the network that was immediately recognized by the Allen Bradley PLC that controls the production system PLC. The EasyBuilder interface automatically generates the Allen Bradley ControlLogix commands needed to communicate with the PLC.

Osgood used the spreadsheet functionality to perform several filtering operations, including binarization and stretching, for each screw position. He used a series of contrast tools to search for each of the fasteners that should be present in the stator housing. The contrast tools measure the number of light pixels relative to the dark pixels within each area where each of the five screws and two lobes are supposed to be located. The next step after verifying the presence of the screws or lobes is the use of pattern tools to check the type of each fastener on the stator.

The presence of solder is inspected simply by binarizing the image of each terminal and measuring the grey scale. Osgood identified the lobes by searching for the plastic circle on each lobe and verifying its diameter. He used EasyBuilder’s point-and-click communications setup to configure the vision system to send inspection results to the PLC after each inspection. In the deployment mode, color tools graphics, a results table and a filmstrip enable to the operator and maintenance staff to review images in order to verify the identification of bad parts and troubleshoot the application.

“The vision application has helped us improve quality while reducing manpower on the inspection line,” Osgood concluded. “The vision system’s relatively low cost was easy to justify since we are penalized $2,000 for any defect. The vision system has operated for six months and in this time it has never passed a bad part nor failed a good part. The result is that we have been able to free up a manual inspector on the line for a more proactive assignment and run the inspection system without operators except for loading and unloading parts. The programmability of the vision system means that we can easily modify the program to compensate for design or process changes. Most important of all, we are confident that we have no fastener-related defects.”

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一场穿越空间的光电舞蹈: TOF激光测距传感器解码记 2023 - 09 - 20 首先,让我们对TOF进行一次短暂的“速读”——它全称叫'time-of-flight',中文怎么说呢?风格洒脱地称之为“飞行时间”。你没听错,就是“飞行时间”。所有的颠覆与创新始于赤裸裸的想象,对吧?再来回过头,看看我们的主角TOF激光测距传感器。激光这东西,我想你肯定不陌生。科幻大片,医美广告里都被频繁提及。对这位明星,我们暂时按下暂停键, 我们聊一聊测距传感器——那可是能把复杂的三维世界,硬是证明成一串串精准数据的硬核工具。当然,他俩的组合,并不是偶然撞壁造成的火花。在“鹰眼”TOF的身上,激光变得更加酷炫,传感器技术也变得更为深邃。他们共舞的主线,就是光的飞行时间。想象一下,要在现实世界计算出光从物体发射出来,然后反射回传感器的时间。你愣了一秒,觉得好像进入了'黑洞'的领域。实则不然,TOF激光测距传感器就是这样“耳提面命”。它以光速旅行者的姿态,穿越空间,告诉我们物体与之间的距离。亲,你有听说过光速吗?大约每秒走30万公里哦,这个速度足够你在一秒钟内去绕地球七点五圈了!TOF激光测距传感器就是他们利用这么一个迅疾的光速,再加上高精度的时钟,来高效精确地计算出飞行时间并转化为距离数据。小编想说,TOF不仅玩科技,他更玩智谋,战胜了同类的超声波、红外线等测距设备。毕竟,被物的颜色、亮度、表面材质,或者环境的温湿度对他来说都不构成锁链。准确到“下毛...
详解激光三角位移传感器的原理及市场应用 2023 - 09 - 16 大家好,今天给大家详细说明下目前我们市面上用的激光位移传感器内部构造及详细原理、应用、市场种类、及未来发展,我在网上搜索了很多资料,发现各大平台或者厂商提供的信息大多千篇一律或者式只言片语,要么是之说出大概原理,要买只讲出产品应用,对于真正想了解激光位移传感器三角回差原理的朋友们来说总是没有用办法说透,我今天花点时间整理了各大平台的大牛们的解释,再结合自己对产品这么多年来的认识,整理出以下这篇文章,希望能给想要了解这种原理的小伙伴一点帮助!好了废话不多说我们直接上干货首先我们要说明市面上的激光测量位移或者距离的原理有很多,比如最常用的激光三角原理,TOF时间飞行原理,光谱共焦原理和相位干涉原理,我们今天给大家详细介绍的是激光三角测量法和激光回波分析法,激光三角测量法一般适用于高精度、短距离的测量,而激光回波分析法则用于远距离测量,下面分别介绍激光三角测量原理和激光回波分析原理。让我们给大家分享一个激光位移传感器原理图,一般激光位移传感器采用的基本原理是光学三角法:半导体激光器:半导体激光器①被镜片②聚焦到被测物体⑥。反射光被镜片③收集,投射到CMOS阵列④上;信号处理器⑤通过三角函数计算阵列④上的光点位置得到距物体的距离。一 、激光位移传感器原理之激光三角测量法原理1.激光发射器通过镜头将可见红色激光射向被测物体表面,经物体反射的激光通过接收器镜头,被内部的CCD线性相机接收,根据...
涂布行业目前主流的非接触式测厚方案一览 2023 - 09 - 11 非接触测量涂布厚度的行业报告摘要:本报告将介绍非接触测量涂布厚度的行业应用场景及解决方案。涂布厚度的准确测量在多个行业中至关重要,如带钢、薄膜、造纸、无纺布、金属箔材、玻璃和电池隔膜等行业。传统的测量方法存在一定的局限性,而非接触测量技术的应用可以提供更准确、高效的测量解决方案。本报告将重点介绍X射线透射法、红外吸收法和光学成像测量方法这三种主要的非接触测量解决方案,并分析其适用场景、原理和优势。引言涂布厚度是涂覆工艺中的一个重要参数,对于保证产品质量和性能具有重要意义。传统的测量方法,如接触式测量和传感器测量,存在一定局限性,如易受污染、操作复杂和不适用于特定行业。而非接触测量方法以其高精度、实时性和便捷性成为行业中的理想选择。行业应用场景涂布厚度的非接触测量方法适用于多个行业,包括但不限于以下领域:带钢:用于热镀锌、涂覆和镀铝等行业,对涂层和薄膜的厚度进行测量。薄膜:用于光学、电子、半导体等行业,对各种功能薄膜的厚度进行测量。造纸:用于测量纸张的涂布、涂胶和覆膜等工艺中的厚度。无纺布:用于纺织和过滤行业,对无纺布的厚度进行测量。金属箔材:用于食品包装、电子器件等行业,对箔材的厚度进行测量。玻璃:用于建筑和汽车行业,对玻璃的涂层厚度进行测量。电池隔膜:用于电池制造行业,对隔膜的厚度进行测量。解决方案一:X射线透射法X射线透射法是一种常用的非接触涂布厚度测量方法,其测量原理基于射线...
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